Adult eye problems

Macular diseases

What is macular (yellow spot)?

Retina is a light-sensitive layer of tissue, lining the inner surface of the eye. Macula is the center of the retina which is most sensitive to light stimulation and responsible to central vision as well as color vision.

Macular problem

Symptoms of macular diseases

People with macular disease would have a blur and distorted central vision. However, patients may not notice the problem themselves if only one of the eyes got the disease.

Type of macular disease

  • Dry Age Related Macular Degenertion: Around 90 % of the case. More common and initially less serious but can progress to wet form.   Treatment usually not necessary.
  • Wet Age Related Macular degeneration: Around 10 % of the cases. The formation of abnormal blood vessels leak fluid and eventually cause scar tissue and destroy central vision. It should be treated as soon as possible.
  • Epiretinal membrane: Scar tissue forms which grows across the macula.  As the membrane contracts, it causes distortion of the retinal tissue and affect our vision.
  • Others: Such as Macular hole, macular edema, CSR.

Reasons

  • High myopia(over 6 diopter)
  • Age over 55 year-old (age related macular degeneration, ARMD)
  • Smoking
  • Heredity
  • Ocular trauma
  • Long-term poor controlled diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure

Treatment

  • Surgeries(with or without using laser) to remove vitreous, inter limiting membrane and abnormal new blood vessels
  • Injection of medicine in order to restrict neo-vascularization formation


Methods to prevent Age-related macular degeneration(ARMD)

    • Quit smoking
    • Wearing hat and sunglass to prevent the effect of ultraviolet light
    • Balanced diet
    • Regular eye check by optometrist

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