Children eye problems

Refractive error

Normal eye
When we look at distance objects, the image will be focused on the retina so that we can see “clearly”.

Short-sighted (Myopia)
In a short sighted eye, the eyeball become larger and longer then normal. The image will then can not be focused on the retina but in front of it. Therefore, the image become blurry. Every 1 mm increase in eyeball length would cause about 3 diopter of myopia. Race, heredity, living environment and reading habit were the risk factors of having myopia. All children should learn how to protect their vision and eyes.

Long-sighted (Hyperopia)
Long-sighted (hyperopia) is the eye ball shorter then normal. Hence, the image will be focused behind the retina when our eye release. If the hyperopia is mild (lower than 2 diopter), it would not affect the vision because our eyes can accommodate and compensate it. However, if the hyperopia is strong (more than 2 -3 diopter), it may affect both distance and near vision. Most children under 6 year-old would have mild hyperopia. It will then disappear when the children grow up.
Hyperopia  is a inborn condition, children should have a comprehensive eye check at 3 years old to rule out the possibility of high hyperopia.
Cylinder (Astigmatism)
The front surface of our eye is a transparent structure call cornea. It should be spherical shape so as the focus light in different direction. When eye with astigmatism (cylinder), cornea become irregular. You can imagine that it look like as a ruby (irregular) rather than a basketball (spherical). Astigmatism affect both distant and near vision.It is an inborn condition too. Child should have a comprehensive eye examination at 3 years old in order to confirm their vision is not affected by astigmatism.